Its rich and vibrant culture left 19 UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages of Humanity, the third largest in the world, along with 12 World Heritage Sites.
Annexed into Imperial Japan in 1910, the country's current political structure dates back to 1919 when the Korean Provisional Government was organized in Shanghai, China as a government in exile and then moved to Chungking to resist the Japanese occupation of Korea.
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Peace has since mostly continued with the two agreeing to work peacefully for reunification and the South solidifying peace as a regional power with the world's 10th largest defense budget. The South Korean economy soared at an annual average of 10% for over 30 years Globally, it ranks highly in personal safety, job security, ease of doing business and healthcare quality, with the world's third highest health adjusted life expectancy and fourth most efficient healthcare system.
South Korea is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Health Organization, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, G20 and a global partner of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name.
After Japan's surrender in 1945, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel with the United States controlling the southern part.
This region was declared the First Korean Republic on August 15, 1948, but a North Korean invasion led to the Korean War (1950–1953) two years later.
During its height, Balhae controlled most of Manchuria and parts of the Russian Far East, and was called the "Prosperous Country in the East".
as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell.
in the Goryeo–Khitan War, Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists.
However, the Mongol invasions in the 13th century greatly weakened the kingdom.
The unification of the Three Kingdoms by Silla in 676 led to the North South States Period, in which much of the Korean Peninsula was controlled by Later Silla, while Balhae controlled the northern parts of Goguryeo.
Balhae was founded by a Goguryeo general and formed as a successor state to Goguryeo.
The new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon (Old Joseon).