The number of new immigrants arriving in the United States from China dwindled from 123,000 in the 1870s to 14,800 in the 1890s, and then to a historically low number of 5,000 in the 1930s.
As a result, many Chinese laborers already in the United States lost hope of ever fulfilling their dreams and returned permanently to China.
Others, who could not afford or were too ashamed to return home, gravitated toward San Francisco's Chinatown for self-protection.
Still others traveled eastward to look for alternative means of livelihood.
Chinatowns in the Northeast, particularly New York, and the mid-West grew to absorb those fleeing the extreme persecution in California.
But few realized their gold dreams; many found themselves instead easy targets of discrimination and exclusion.
In the 1870s, white workers' frustration with economic distress, labor market uncertainty, and capitalist exploitation turned into anti-Chinese sentiment and racist attacks against the Chinese called them the "yellow peril." In 1882, the U. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and later extended to exclude all Asian immigrants until World War II.
They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late 1840s, including some 60 years of legal exclusion.
In the mid-l9th century, most Chinese immigrants arrived in Hawaii and the U. mainland as contract labor, working at first in the plantation economy in Hawaii and in the mining industry on the West Coast and later on the transcontinental railroads west of the Rocky Mountains.
One state, California, accounts for 40 percent of all Chinese Americans (1.1 million).
New York accounts for 16 percent, second only to California, and Hawai'i for 6 percent.
Variedades El arroz rojo no es ningún invento ni debe su color a ningún tinte o proceso químico, sino que es una variedad de arroz como cualquier otra, con sus propiedades y beneficios Elaborar postres con licor no es nada nuevo, aunque cuando preparamos dulces se nos suele olvidar que un toque de bebida espirituosa puede ensalzar el sabor y llevar el postre a la perfección.