For the metropolitan area, see Rochester, New York metropolitan area.(left to right, top to bottom) the Eastman Theater at the Eastman School of Music; First Federal Plaza building; Xerox, Legacy (formerly Bausch & Lomb), and Metropolitan (formerly Chase) towers; Downtown Rochester skyline; Rush Rhees Library at the University of Rochester; Sacred Heart cathedral; row houses in the Grove Place neighborhood) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York.
With a population of over 210,000 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo.
In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester.
The carriage maker James Cunningham and Sons founded a pioneer automobile company – Cunningham.
The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920.
Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney.
By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city's second nickname, the "Flower City." Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland.
Rochester is the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products.
The Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, Bausch & Lomb, Gleason and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products.The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B.Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see.By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city.Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", and then as the "Flour City".At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops.