By the 1970s, the city's economy had recovered after 30 years of economic downturn.
A large number of high rises were constructed in the Financial District and in Boston's Back Bay during this time period.
By the end of the 19th century, Boston's core neighborhoods had become enclaves of ethnically distinct immigrants.
Italians inhabited the North End, Irish dominated South Boston and Charlestown, and Russian Jews lived in the West End.
Irish immigrants dominated the first wave of newcomers during this period, especially following the Irish Potato Famine; by 1850, about 35,000 Irish lived in Boston.
French Canadians, and Russian and Polish Jews settling in the city.
The city annexed the adjacent towns of South Boston (1804), East Boston (1836), Roxbury (1868), Dorchester (including present day Mattapan and a portion of South Boston) (1870), Brighton (including present day Allston) (1874), West Roxbury (including present day Jamaica Plain and Roslindale) (1874), Charlestown (1874), and Hyde Park (1912).
Boston responded by initiating various urban renewal projects, under the direction of the Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA) established in 1957.occurred in or near Boston, including the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, Paul Revere's midnight ride, the battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston, and many others.After the Revolution, Boston's long seafaring tradition helped make it one of the world's wealthiest international ports, with the slave trade, Boston's harbor activity was significantly curtailed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (adopted during the Napoleonic Wars) and the War of 1812.The renaming on September 7, 1630, (Old Style) who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest of fresh water.Their settlement was initially limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus.In 1958, BRA initiated a project to improve the historic West End neighborhood.