Remains of the Bronze Age Suyargan (beginning of the 2nd millennium b.c.e.), Tazabag’yab (middle and late 2nd millennium b.c.e.), and Amirabad (10th-8th centuries b.c.e.) cultures have also been identified there (Itina, 1977), the latter two showing links with the Timber Frame and Andronovo cultures of the European steppes to the northwest.
After Bessos was forced to retreat his intransigent lieutenant Spitamenes went into hiding among the Chorasmians (Strabo, 11.8.8).
Once the outcome of the struggle became clear, however, several Central Asian embassies waited on Alexander at Maracanda in the spring of 328.
Higher up in the town dwellings were arrayed along the walls.
The palace, covering an area of 1 ha, was also located in the upper town; about twenty dwellings and courtyards were excavated there.
Ctesias ( 29.8-14) reported that, as he lay dying, Cyrus appointed his younger son, Tanyoxares (see bardiya), ruler of the Bactrians, Choramnians (Chorasmians), Parthians, and Carmanians (ap. 9); at any rate relative order had been established on the northeastern frontiers of the empire before Cyrus’s successor, Cambyses (529-22 b.c.e.), marched on Egypt in 525. A rectangular area 1,000 x 600 m was surrounded by a defensive wall 15 m thick.
The original fortifications at Kyuzeli-gyr were destroyed by fire, possibly during the Persian conquest. In the middle of each side was a strongly fortified gate (100 x 50 m).From this account it appears that he did not personally travel to Alexander’s headquarters and incidentally that he enjoyed a certain degree of hegemony over his nomadic neighbors. Already in the first half of the 4th century Chorasmia was home to what S. Tolstov (1948a; 1948b) labeled, rather inappropriately, the “Kang-qu” culture (see below), a fusion of local and borrowed components.The irrigation network was radically rebuilt: On the right bank of the Oxus the length of the trunk canals increased two or threefold, sometimes reaching 300 km.“They wintered in Thessaly and Macedonia; after the battle of Platea, in which they did not participate, they retreated via Byzantium to the Hellespont. Chorasmian workmen participated in the construction of Persepolis and labored on the docks of Memphis in Egypt. Aramaic script was introduced in Chorasmia, probably through the mediation of Achaemenid scribes (Livshits and Mambetullaev, p. Much information about the everyday life of the rural population of the province in the Achaemenid period can be gleaned from study of the finds at Dingil’dzhe (Vorob’eva, 1973). By that time the Chorasmians were no longer subjects but allies of the Persian ruler (Dandamaev, p. It is now possible to reconstruct with some precision the circumstances under which they gained their independence. The style of the carving is very similar to that of the griffin protomes from the audience hall at Persepolis.The name of a Chorasmian soldier who served in Upper Egypt is preserved on a document of 464 b.c.e. Chorasmians are also portrayed among the tribute bearers carved in relief on the eastern staircase of the Apadana at Persepolis (groups 11 and 17). The last mention of Chorasmians in a Persian inscription is on a tomb attributed to Artaxerxes II (405-359 b.c.e.; Kent, , pp. The relatively accomplished architecture of the Kalaly-gur palace and its grand scale suggest that it was intended as the seat of the newly established Chorasmian satrapy, but the unfinished state of the stone column bases, abandoned molds, and layers of silt and deposits on the floors are evidence that the satrap never took up residence there.These chambers were too small to contain human burials, and in fact not a single archaic burial has so far been found in Chorasmia; clearly the practice of interment had already ceased there by the 6th century b.c.e., probably in conformity with Zoroastrian prescriptions.